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Jerzy Turowicz Trail

Kraków

  • 7 Sobieskiego Street

    This is the address of Turowicz's family house in the centre of Krakow where Jerzy Turowicz was born on the 10th of December, 1912, to August (1875–1960) and Klotylda (1881–1979) née Turnau Turowicz. August Turowicz was a judge, later on, he became a legal advisor employed at Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny[Illustrated Daily Courier], a newspaper published in Krakow; he was also an active member of the Catholic Action and, as a lawyer, he collaborated with the Krakow curia and with Krakow metropolitan bishop, Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapiecha. The family had lived in Krakow for generations; it is thus no coincidence that Jerzy Turowicz – as his friend since pre-war times, Jacek Woźniakowski, the head of Znak publishing house in the years 1959–1990, mentioned in his book Ze wspomnień szczęściarza [From Memories of a Lucky Man] – liked to say: "As a citizen of Krakow, I think that...".

    7 Sobieskiego Street

    This is the address of Turowicz's family house in the centre of Krakow where Jerzy Turowicz was born on the 10th of December, 1912, to August (1875–1960) and Klotylda (1881–1979) née Turnau Turowicz. August Turowicz was a judge, later on, he became a legal advisor employed at Ilustrowany Kurier Codzienny[Illustrated Daily Courier], a newspaper published in Krakow; he was also an active member of the Catholic Action and, as a lawyer, he collaborated with the Krakow curia and with Krakow metropolitan bishop, Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapiecha. The family had lived in Krakow for generations; it is thus no coincidence that Jerzy Turowicz – as his friend since pre-war times, Jacek Woźniakowski, the head of Znak publishing house in the years 1959–1990, mentioned in his book Ze wspomnień szczęściarza [From Memories of a Lucky Man] – liked to say: "As a citizen of Krakow, I think that...".

    Jerzy had two brothers: Andrzej (1904–1989; his monastic name was Bernard), a professor of mathematics, lecturer at the AGH University of Science and Technology, who entered the Benedictine Abbey in Tyniec near Krakow in 1945; and Juliusz (1906–1995), a priest, professor of liturgy studies, lecturer at the Krakow Seminary; and four sisters: Anna (1909–2004), Strzelecka by marriage; Maria (1914–1997) – a philosopher and geographer by education, a translator of Roman Ingarden's works, a secretary at Tygodnik Powszechny [General Weekly] until the magazine was closed down in 1953, later on, an editor at Państwowe Wydawnictwo Muzyczne; Olawia (1916–2001), an accountant; Krystyna (1920–2007), Falkowska by marriage, who became a judge.

    The very same street is also home to the Jan III Sobieski Gymnasium, which Jerzy Turowicz began his attendance in 1922 to graduate from it eight years later after having passed his final examinations. As a student of the Sobieski Gymnasium he joined Sodality of Our Lady and he debuted in the late 1920s as a teenage publicist in its press division – a monthly magazine published in Zakopane under the title Pod Znakiem Maryi[Under Our Lady's Banner].

    Turowicz lived at 7 Sobieskiego street until 1938, when he married Anna Gąsiorowska.

  • Jagiellonian University

    "When Tygodnik was launched," Jerzy Turowicz said during a lecture that he gave at Jagiellonian University on the 26th of March, 1995, within the framework of a conference organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Tygodnik Powszechny – "I was a volunteer assistant at Jagiellonian University's chair of economic history run by professor Roman Grodecki. I did not resign from this post, which by the way was not a paid one at all, because I believed that this game at publishing Tygodnik would last three or perhaps six months and then I would have to take up another job."

    Jagiellonian University

    "When Tygodnik was launched," Jerzy Turowicz said during a lecture that he gave at Jagiellonian University on the 26th of March, 1995, within the framework of a conference organized to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Tygodnik Powszechny – "I was a volunteer assistant at Jagiellonian University's chair of economic history run by professor Roman Grodecki. I did not resign from this post, which by the way was not a paid one at all, because I believed that this game at publishing Tygodnik would last three or perhaps six months and then I would have to take up another job."

    Jerzy Turowicz graduated from the Department of Philosophy at Jagiellonian University; he learnt history and philosophy from such scholars as: Jan Dąbrowski, Roman Grodecki, Marian Heitzman, Władysław Konopczyński, Stanisław Kot, Joachim Metallmann, vice-chancellor Father Konstanty Michalski, Ludwik Piotrowicz. When Tygodnik was launched, lecturers from Jagiellonian University featuring Artur Górski, Stanisław Kutrzeba, Władysław Konopczyński – became the core authors of the magazine from Wiślna street from its very first issue.

    Unfortunately, Jerzy Turowicz's MA thesis, which he started writing in 1939, was never finished. First, the war broke out and then, in 1945, the master-to-be began editing Tygodnik Powszechny which constituted a full time job leaving him no time for other activities. Also for concluding his modest academic plans.

    "I console myself with the thought that Tygodnik probably would not have been any better a magazine if I had had a diploma," he said on the 13th of January, 1990, while receiving the title of honoris causa title from Jagiellonian University. "I am entirely sure, though, that the magazine I have been editing for forty five years (with breaks caused by historic events) would not have become what it was through all these difficult years if it were not for the baggage of humanistic culture I received within these walls, or the broad limits of thought this Krakow Academy opened to me."

  • Editorial Section of Głos Narodu at Smoleńsk Street

    On the 1st of January, 1939, Jerzy Turowicz, then 26, arrived in the humble rooms of a house adjacent to the small God's Mercy church at Smoleńsk street, which housed the editorial section of the Głos Narodu [Nation's Voice] daily newspaper, published in Krakow since 1893. He became a journalist and editor; this was his first permanent job.

    Editorial Section of Głos Narodu at Smoleńsk Street

    On the 1st of January, 1939, Jerzy Turowicz, then 26, arrived in the humble rooms of a house adjacent to the small God's Mercy church at Smoleńsk street, which housed the editorial section of the Głos Narodu [Nation's Voice] daily newspaper, published in Krakow since 1893. He became a journalist and editor; this was his first permanent job.

    The post of editor in chief was then held by Father. Dr. Jan Piwowarczyk, a publicist who had received excellent education, was a valued priest, an expert in Catholic social science, a critic of the pre-war reformation rule which limited democracy. Under his tutelage, Turowicz learned journalism; after 1945 they worked together to launch and publish Tygodnik Powszechny.

    When on the 1st of July, 1939, Father Piwowarczyk left the editorial section to become a parish priest at St. Florian's church in Krakow, Jerzy Turowicz took over the editor-in-chief's post. He had gathered certain experience in such a post – in his university years, he was the editor in chief of Dyszel w Głowie [Shaft in Head], a bulletin published in Lviv by Stowarzyszenie Katolickiej Młodzieży Akademickiej Odrodzenie [Revival Catholic Academic Youth Association ] and then Historia [History] a magazine for history students at Polish universities, published by History Association in Krakow.

  • 12 Wiślna Street

    Over the first few months, Tygodnik Powszechny, the first issue was dated the 24th of March, 1945, the editorial office was housed in a small room at 3 Franciszkańska street, which was the seat of the Krakow curia. The present address, 12 Wiślna street, was mentioned in the imprint for the first time in issue no. 4 of 27th January, 1946.

    12 Wiślna Street

    Over the first few months, Tygodnik Powszechny, the first issue was dated the 24th of March, 1945, the editorial office was housed in a small room at 3 Franciszkańska street, which was the seat of the Krakow curia. The present address, 12 Wiślna street, was mentioned in the imprint for the first time in issue no. 4 of 27th January, 1946.

    The Catholic social and cultural periodical was targeted at intellectuals, but not only at Catholic ones – the nature of Tygodnik was not religious, neither was the magazine formally dependent on the Church. A group of lay Catholics and priests was publishing the magazine solely on their own responsibility. Although the magazine was published in Krakow, it was distributed all over the country. After the war and throughout the following years of the People's Republic of Poland, the magazine expressed a Catholic stance and shaped the views of Catholics in Poland.

    In 1995, at the celebration of the magazine’s fiftieth anniversary, the editor-in-chief recalled the beginning years: "In 1945, the authorities allowed for the publication of the magazine because of the prestige and respect enjoyed by the then Krakow metropolitan bishop, Father Adam Stefan Sapieha, who was later to become a cardinal and who took the periodical under his wing. But these authorities were reluctant towards the existence of Tygodnik, they made it as difficult as possible by means of preventive censorship (applied from the very beginning although there were no legal grounds for such an action), as well as by limiting the magazine's circulation and page number. (...) In 1953 – as it is well known – because we refused to commemorate Stalin's death, the publication of Tygodnik was suspended for a period of three and a half years. Tygodnik was never closed down permanently mainly due to the strong position of the Catholic church, which, under the prelate Stefan Wyszyński constituted a major social force opposing the regime and ideology imposed upon Poland. The Church that never submitted to the communist authorities and resisted division. This power of the Church was a protective shield to Tygodnik. Another reason why we endured was probably that the existence of Tygodnik, an independent magazine, created an impression of freedom of the press and views and thus worked to the authorities' advantage.

    Finally, close relations of friendship among the members of the editorial section, a sense of responsibility and ideological commitment in the affairs of Poland and the Church, they all contributed to the survival of the paper. The team included the leading Catholic publicists and intellectuals such as: Antoni Gołubiew, Hanna Malewska, Zofia Starowieyska-Morstinowa, Stanisław Stomma, Stefan Kisielewski or Paweł Jasienica – just to mention a few names, and cooperated with a large number of Jagiellonian University professors, which can be viewed, in a way, as a continuation of a pre-war Krakow daily paper Czas [Time]."

    Under Jerzy Turowicz as the chief editor, some of the most important texts of post-war journalism were published in Tygodnik Powszechny, among others Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto [Poor Poles Look Upon the Ghetto] by Jan Błoński (1987), Czarne jest czarne [Black is Black] by Jesuit Father Stanisław Musiał (1997), Father Józef Tischner's essays, publicist pieces by Józefa Hennelowa or Tadeusz Żychiewicz. Literature was always represented in the magazine since the very beginning of the paper – authors who published their works in Turowicz's Tygodnik included, among others, Kornel Filipowicz, Julia Hartwig, Zbigniew Herbert, Artur Międzyrzecki, Czesław Miłosz, Wisława Szymborska, Wiktor Woroszylski, and Jerzy Zagórski. But also Father Karol Wojtyła – since 1978 Pope John Paul II – who debuted as a publicist in Turowicz's Tygodnik with a piece entitled Mission de France in March of 1949. This is when a long-lasting friendship of the Author and the Editor began.

    They were both fascinated by the works of the Second Vatican Council. Jerzy Turowicz originally reported the proceedings of the Council in his magazine, which along with Znak [Sign], a monthly magazine edited by Hanna Malewska and her co-workers, became the only reliable source of information on the changes taking place in the Church available in Poland. Similar consideration and diligence characterized Turowicz for many subsequent years, when we watched the execution of the conciliar reform, also in Polish Church.

    The inscription "Editor: Jerzy Turowicz" first appeared in the imprint in Tygodnik Powszechny issue no. 30 of 14th October 1947. Almost half a century later, in December 1992, on Turowicz’s 80th birthday, Professor Jacek Woźniakowski tried to unravel the mystery of Turowicz’s rule: "First of all, Jerzy never imposed anything on anyone. As the editor-in-chief, he always let us do many things that were in line with our talents, desires and interests. He hardly ever forced himself on others. (...) Jerzy lead by a cautious, sensible and courageous path at the same time. And he did it in such an invisible, discreet way (...). There was also another element to that, which I like to call the culture of open door. Jerzy hated when the door – I wonder whether this is symbolic in a wider sense – to his office was closed. This wasn’t his office at all. All the meetings and conferences took place there, there was a constant rush in there, Jerzy hardly found himself a little bit of space by the desk. (...) The door had to be open at all times and any, excuse the expression, creep stepping right from the street dashed directly into Jerzy's office because there was nothing to stop his impetus in other rooms and this was the very last one".

    In the office of the editor-in-chief of Tygodnik Powszechny, a painting of Franz Joseph has been hanging on the wall for many years – like a personification of immutability and stability. Jerzy Turowicz himself did not let his images be framed. When he received the honoris causa diploma from Jagiellonian University in November 1990, he briefly summarised his own achievements: "(...) I must admit, that I listened to what has been just said about me here, to those praises way greater than my accomplishments, with some embarrassment. There was a place, where things I have done could be done, somebody had to do it, I was lucky to be that person."

    Since 1959, 12 Wiślna street was also the address of Znak publishing house which moved in early 1990s to Dworek Łowczego at 37 Kościuszki street, a building that had been fully rebuilt from the foundations.

  • 3 Lenartowicza Street

    Jerzy Schroeder, a friend to Anna and Jerzy Turowicz, helped them obtain a flat allotment at the housing office. Schroeder was an engineer involved in the reconstruction of the chemical industry and thus had much better chances for an apartment than an editor of a Catholic magazine. The Turowiczs moved in with a group of family and friends. It was March of 1945 – several weeks after they moved out of the Goszyce estate, which by virtue of a decree on agricultural reform of 1944 (or actually due to malpractice in connection with the decree's regulations), became a state property along with its lands and forests.

    3 Lenartowicza Street

    Jerzy Schroeder, a friend to Anna and Jerzy Turowicz, helped them obtain a flat allotment at the housing office. Schroeder was an engineer involved in the reconstruction of the chemical industry and thus had much better chances for an apartment than an editor of a Catholic magazine. The Turowiczs moved in with a group of family and friends. It was March of 1945 – several weeks after they moved out of the Goszyce estate, which by virtue of a decree on agricultural reform of 1944 (or actually due to malpractice in connection with the decree's regulations), became a state property along with its lands and forests.

    The house at Lenartowicza street, thanks to Anna and Jerzy Turowicz, became an oasis of a different life for many people – it was a place of interesting discussions, poetry readings, a place where French chansons were played. Thanks to Father Adam Boniecki, who, as an editor at “Tygodnik Powszechny” and a priest at the university St. Anna's church, organized panel discussions with his students at the turn of 1960s and 1970s in a room he rented from Turowiczs'. The apartment was visited by as many as several dozens of young people every Sunday.

    Uta Kalinowska – who worked as a conservation officer for many years and has run her own antique shop in Krakow since 1993 – was a friend of Turowiczs' household since 1960s: "The house at Lenartowicza street shaped me when I was growing up and maturing. In was intellectually inspiring. Upbringing, in a way, just seemed to happen: there was never a question of instructive discussions, no one ever forced anyone to do anything. The Turowiczs educated by merely being there: by what they were talking about, by who visited their house, by the way they lived, and, of course, by art. One absorbed it all and changed upon the influence of these people to his surprise.

    And the people, into whose world I was introduced through the house at Lenartowicza street, were indeed versatile. Miłosz was discussed a lot and Miłosz's works were read each time Jerzy received something new published by Biblioteka Kultury. I remember a time when he was sitting at his desk and we, the young ones, were gathered around him and Taś was reading. There were no discussions on politics at Turowiczs' house. But not because of us, the adolescents – not because they wanted to protect us. The topic simply wasn't interesting, just like cooking or household chores at Lenartowicza street. Discussions on art were worthwhile, Gomułka was not.

    Thanks to Turowicz, a large number of people in Poland could find themselves in a different world by going through his Tygodnik once every week. To a smaller extent, this applied to us, people most closely connected to the house at Lenartowicza street – thanks to Anna and Jerzy, we existed in a different world: a free one. This was the essence of Turowicz’s influence: firstly through writing; secondly through contact in person".

    We may find out what the apartment (closed down in June of 2001) was like from Barbara N. Łopieńska's interview with Anna and Jerzy Turowicz.

    "Since I started to edit Tygodnik Powszechny, I have been receiving a lot of books, but I have also been buying them too, I'm still buying them,” the editor-in-chief of Tygodnik said. "I enter a book store to get a book and even if I don't find this particular one, I leave with three others. Our "birth rate" is at least one book a day. I have no idea how many there are, I guess it's about twenty thousand."

    Piles of newspapers and a cuttings library constituted another important piece of equipment of the apartment at Lenartowicza street. "These files date back to twenty, thirty of forty years ago. A damn thing. Urgent folders that have never been read" – Anna Turowicz admitted teasingly in Łopieńska's interview.

    The journalist’s attention was finally drawn to ten suitcases placed on the top of a wardrobe in the hall. What are all of these used for? "What do you mean?" Turowicz asked in return. "For travelling".

  • 21 Helclów Street

    "Tonight the Lems, Jerzy [Turowicz] and Father Wojtyła – a strange carolling fellowship" – Jan Józef Szczepański recorded guests who arrived in he and his wife's apartment at Helclów street in Krakow in his diary on the 26th of December, 1957.

    21 Helclów Street

    "Tonight the Lems, Jerzy [Turowicz] and Father Wojtyła – a strange carolling fellowship" – Jan Józef Szczepański recorded guests who arrived in he and his wife's apartment at Helclów street in Krakow in his diary on the 26th of December, 1957.

    Helena Styrna-Mamoniowa, the wife of Bronisław Mamoń, an editor at Tygodnik Powszechny, on numerous occasions learned how important the meetings in private houses were to the Tygodnik employees of: "If only we had the opportunity, we led and intensive social life. And there were many occasions: name days, weddings, our children's first communions. These meetings stopped when communist Poland fell. I guess that our love for parties back then resulted from the oppressive nature of that period, from the plainness that lasted for decades. This was our way to abreact: now they can go and...".

    Important meetings to discuss social issues – partly in fear of bugs installed by the Security Service in the offices of Tygodnik Powszechny – also took place in the editors' homes: at Father Andrzej Bardecki's, the editor of the religious column of Tygodnik Powszechny, who as the chaplain lived in the convent of the Adorers of the Scared Heart of Jesus at Garncarska street; at Janina and Antoni Gołubiew's at Jaskółcza street; in Zofia Starowieyska-Morstinowa's living room at Plac Sikorskiego (the editors and magazine's co-workers meet there regularly in the years 1953–56 when the PAX association took the periodical from its righteous editors); at Maja and Jacek Woźniakowski's at Wyspiańskiego street.

  • Piwnica pod Baranami

    Ewa Preisner, a painter and stage designer connected with Piwnica pod Baranami since 1980s recalls the visits Jerzy Turowicz paid to the cabaret in the following way: "When he entered, you would hold your breath: a grand guest has come. You would seek his attention, celebrate his presence and Piotr Skrzynecki always greeted him in person; he showed how much respect he had for Turowicz's knowledge, erudition and taste all the time".

    Piwnica pod Baranami

    Ewa Preisner, a painter and stage designer connected with Piwnica pod Baranami since 1980s recalls the visits Jerzy Turowicz paid to the cabaret in the following way: "When he entered, you would hold your breath: a grand guest has come. You would seek his attention, celebrate his presence and Piotr Skrzynecki always greeted him in person; he showed how much respect he had for Turowicz's knowledge, erudition and taste all the time".

    "I don't understand how, having so many responsibilities and duties, he managed to find the time to watch the cabaret shows several times, participate in every ball, in every, even the craziest undertaking, in every Christmas and Easter meeting," Joanna Olczak-Ronikier, the author of a monograph on the cabaret with which she became connected as early as in late 1950, wondered in 1997. "I don't get where he drew all his energy from to (...) appear at every theatre and film premiere, every exhibition preview, every decent public event, every private celebration. Not only in Krakow. I often travelled to Warsaw and I always met him at one of the stations. He had just arrived. Or he was just leaving to make it for a very important meeting."

    In calendars, which Turowicz filled diligently throughout the years with notes on his journeys, names of people he met, brief accounts of conversations he had, there are also notes on visits to film screenings at the French Institute at Jana street or films he watched during the may short film review at the Kijów cinema, exhibitions previews at Pałac Sztuki or visits to Krzysztofory art gallery.

    Father Mieczysław Maliński, an author at Tygodnik, a friend of Turowiczs since 1960s, recalled such an event: "When Piotr Skrzynecki celebrated a jubilee, people from Piwnica rented the entire Pałac pod Baranami in order to invite the most active party members and the most Catholic people in Krakow for the celebrations. All the invited guests were supposed to dress up in historical costumes; no one in regular clothes was to be admitted. In the end, Piotr made an exception for Turowicz and for me. Each room in the palace was devoted to something else: a film screening here, a theatre play there, and a jazz concert elsewhere. In one room, there were even tents similar to those won during the battle of Vienna.

    I was tired and went home at one or two a.m., but something came over me and I returned to Piwnica pod Baranami in the morning. The rooms were empty, everyone was gone. Only Jerzy and Piotr were sitting at a table drinking coffee. And talking. They were the only ones to last until dawn.

    Jerzy Turowicz found himself comfortable in any situation: both participating in fierce discussions during the Vatican Council and in a swinging party at Piwnica pod Baranami. And everywhere he was gladly received, although he never imposed himself on anyone, never expected any particular attention from other people. It was rather he who offered such attention".

  • St. Anna’s Collegiate Church

    Anna and Jerzy Turowicz had their regular seats in St. Anna's church which they weekly attended Sunday services. Father Jan Pietraszko (who later became a bishop in Krakow) and Father Professor Józef Tischner were preachers there back then.

    St. Anna’s Collegiate Church

    Anna and Jerzy Turowicz had their regular seats in St. Anna's church which they weekly attended Sunday services. Father Jan Pietraszko (who later became a bishop in Krakow) and Father Professor Józef Tischner were preachers there back then.

    He was very discreet and never talked much about his faith, although it undoubtedly was the most important thing in his life. An example can be found in an interview for the Znak monthly magazine from 1997: "God demands from us, expects us to aspire to holiness and to try to change the world. An this isn't worthless, it doesn't come to anything, although the final result of all our attempts depends on God's will. A prayer in adoration gives us the awareness that even if we fell short of God's expectations, even if we sinned in the worst way, and even if there was no justification for our deeds, the final balance of our history and of human history in general proves that God's will has been done after all".